This course helps meet the new BOT rule with respect to number sense. Provides a background in special number concepts that are pertinent to middle school mathematics. Topics include elementary algebra, properties of integers, prime and composite numbers, divisors, GCDs, LCMs, the number of divisors, the sum of divisors, the Euclidean Algorithm, famous unsolved problems, finite mathematical systems, modular arithmetic and congruences, and sequences. Emphasis given to problem solving techniques as they relate to number concepts and algebraic representation.