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“Civilization is a method of living and an attitude of equal respect for all people.”
˜ Jane Addams
Social change model of leadership (taken from A social change model of leadership)
- Understanding this model requires assumption that a leadership group has been formed to engage in change-action project.
- Basic Premises
- Inclusive - designed to enhance the development of leadership qualities in all participants
- Leadership is a process
- The model promotes the values of equity, social justice, self-knowledge, personal empowerment, collaboration, citizenship, and service
- Primary Goals
- To enhance student learning and development; more specifically , to develop in each student greater:
- Self knowledge: understanding of one's talents, values, and interests, especially as they relate to the student's capacity to provide effective leadership
- Leadership and competence: the capacity to mobilize oneself and others to serve and to work collaboratively
- To facilitate positive social change at the institution or in the community
- Examines leadership from three perspectives
- The core is comprised of seven values divided by subgroup
- Individual Values
- Consciousness of Self means being aware of the beliefs, values, attitudes, and emotions that motivate one to take action
- Congruence refers to thinking, feeling, and behaving with consistency, genuineness, authenticity, and honesty towards others.
- Commitment is the psychic energy that motivates the individual to serve and that drives the collective effort
- Group Process Values
- Collaboration is to work with others in a common effort.
- Common Purpose means to work with shared aims and values.
- Controversy with Civility recognizes two fundamental realities of any creative group effort: that differences in viewpoint are inevitable, and that such differences must be aired openly but with civility
- Community/Societal Values
- Citizenship is the process whereby the individual and the collaborative group become responsibly connected to the community and the society through the leadership development activity
- CHANGE, of course, is the value "hub" which gives meaning and purpose to the 7 C's. It is the ultimate goal
Experiential Learning: David Kolb (Evans, Forney, & DiBrito (1998)
- Goal is to obtain a "fully integrated personality" (Merriam et al.)
- Six Propositions
- Learning should be regarded as a process, not a set of outcomes
- All learning is re-learning
- The learning process is driven by conflict, differences, and disagreements
- Learning should not only involve cognition, but thinking, feeling, perceiving, and behaving
- Learning occurs from the transaction of the individual and the environment
- Learning is the process of constructing knowledge
- Learning is a 4-stage/step cycle
- Concrete Experience (CE) - a feeling dimension
- Reflective observation (RO) - a watching dimension
- Abstract conceptualization (AC) - a thinking dimension
- Active experimentation (AE) - a doing dimension
- Learning Styles based upon polar opposite stages i.e. CE/AC & RO/AE
- Accommodator (feeling): (CE + AE)
- Action oriented and at ease with people, prefers trial and error problem solving
- Good at carrying out plans, is open to new experiences, adapts easily to change
- Diverger (feeling): (CE+RO)
- People and feeling oriented
- Imaginative and aware of meaning and values, is good at generating and analyzing alternatives
- Converger (thinking): (AC+AE)
- Prefers technical tasks over social or interpersonal settings
- Excels at problem solving, decision making, and practical applications
- Assimilator (thinking): (AC+RO)
- Emphasizes ideas rather than people
- Good at inductive reasoning, creating theoretical models, and integrating observations
Possible Student Learning Goals (University of Cal. State, Long Beach: Service Learning Curriculum Development Resource Guide for Faculty)
- Awareness of Community
- Increase students' knowledge of community issues, needs, strengths, problems and resources
- Increase sensitivity to major aspects and characteristics of issues, causal, and correlative factors, associated issues, and the nature of public and private organizations addressing the issues
- Understand relationships among democracy politics, and civic participation
- Identify community-based public and private programs that provide assistance and advocacy
- Involvement with Community
- Increase quantity and quality of student interactions
- Improve reciprocity and interdependence between community and students
- Commitment to Service
- Make a life-long commitment to social responsibility, especially when holding future leadership positions
- Remove barriers to future service
- Learn to value personal involvement in community
- Demonstrate concern for welfare of others in broader community
- Career Development
- Expose students to career opportunities
- Develop professional skills related to prospective careers
- Use leadership skills
- Develop personal leadership style
- Improve self-esteem, sense of personal worth, competence and confidence in one's ability to make a difference
- Self Awareness
- Improve students' awareness of individual strengths
- Help students set limits and goals, and decrease fears
- Help them to change preconceived understandings
- Expose them to options and points of view rather than their own
- Understand their own values and skills
- Take responsibility for consequences of one's own actions
- Sensitivity to Diversity
- Improve students' attitudes
- Improve understanding of diversity
- Increase students' knowledge of diverse communities
- Increase students self confidence and comfort levels with new communities
- Respect and appreciate different perspective and people
- Identify similarities and differences within diverse populations
- Understand social construct\equity and their relationship with US and world societies
- Sense of Ownership
- Help students develop autonomy and independence
- Have students assume responsibility for community projects
- Help students develop a sense of their own role in the community partnership
- Develop commitment to life-long learning
- Explore altruistic and social justice motivations for community partnerships
- Develop a students' oral and/or written communication skills
- Improve student recognition of importance of communication
- Use variety of ways to articulate information: written, verbal, artistic, media, etc.
- Learn to collaborate and negotiate to resolve conflict