Survey of European history from ca. 1400 to 1648 with emphasis on the rise of humanist culture; the growth of stronger "national" governments in England, France, Spain, and Italy; the disintegration of Christian unity and the emergence of rival Christian churches; the emergence of the mercantile, pre-capitalist economic system, and the intensification of conflict made possible by greater resources and religious rivalries. (Might not be offered every year)