Gaa-izhiwebakin Anishinaabewakiing

Year Event Description
0 Zenith Creation-1492 Zenith of Mankind’s Social Development happens in North America
1 Creation Anishinaabe Created in North America.
2 Flood and Re-creation Earth is flooded. Wenaboozhoo rebuilds earth on back of a turtle. Turtle Island is created (N. America)
3 Seven Values Gifted to Anishinaabe
4 Migration West Sacred Migis leads Ojibwe Nations migration westward from St. Lawrence River to the place of Wild rice
1492 Colonization 1492-1776
1492.1 Columbus Invades Americas

October 12, 1492, Columbus lands on Hispaniola in Western Hemisphere. Slaughters and exploits natives for gold. Raw capitalism. Eastern hemisphere epidemics unleashed.

Eye Witness to History

1585 Sir Walter Raleigh colonizes Roanoke Island, VA

Raleigh conceived and organized the colonizing expeditions to America that ended tragically with the “lost colony”.

Wikipedia: Walter Raleigh 

1620 First Contact with Ojibwe 1620-1650

French explorers and missionaries are discovered at Sault Ste. Marie

Lake Ontario 

Ojibwe History 

1620 May Flower lands on East Coast of Turtle Island
1622 Opechancanough leads Indian Confederacy against Virginia colonists
1637 Pequot War Belligerent Puritan colonists attempt to extend authority over Pequots. War almost brings Pequots to extinction and influx of pilgrims take land.
1640 Beaver Wars (Iroquois Wars) Dutch trade withdrawal and declining beaver cause Iroquois to expand territories. Push Huron’s and SE Anishinaabe towards the Sault.
1641 European colonists introduce scalping by offering bounties for Indian scalps In 1706 the governor of Pennsylvania offered 130 pieces of eight for the scalp of any Indian male over twelve years of age and 50 pieces of eight for a woman’s scalp. Because it was impossible for those who paid the bounty to determine the sex, and sometimes the age, of the victim from the scalp alone, killing women and children became a way to make easy money. The practice of paying bounties for Indian scalps did not end until the 1800s.
1641 Dutch colonists introduce scalping to Turtle Island by offering bounties for Indian scalps
1653 Ojibwe repel Iroquois from the Sault During their wars with the Iroquois, the Ojibwe pushed down both sides of Lake Huron and by 1701 controlled most of lower Michigan and southern Ontario. Iroquois wanted new hunting land for fur trade because they depleted theirs.
1662 Ojibwe final repel of Iroquois from the Sault. Reestablish SE Anishinaabe territories
1675 King Philip’s War New England
1679 Ojibwe-Dakota Entente, Daniel du Luth,
1690 1690-1710 Ojibwe push West into Dakota country past St.Croix River The Ojibwe, who have been moving westward for generations, reach the land we now call Minnesota. They encounter forest-dwelling Dakota people already here.
Minnesota Historical Society (MHS): Ojibwe Arrival 
1690 Fox Wars 1690-1733
1693 Fort La Pointe Established at Chequamegon Bay
1693 Madeline Island established as epicenter of Ojibwe Nation at Chequamegon Bay
1698 French withdraw western forts Ojibwe trade with Dakota
1700 Mississauga Ojibwe final repel of Iroquois During their wars with the Iroquois, the Ojibwe pushed down both sides of Lake Huron and by 1701 controlled most of lower Michigan and southern Ontario.
1712 French and Fox war

 The First Fox War (1712-16) began when Fox, Kickapoo and Mascouten attacked Fort Pontchartrain on May 13th. The initial assault failed and was followed by a siege. With over 300 well-armed warriors pitted against 20 French soldiers inside a fort with crumbling walls, there is reason to ask if the Fox intended to kill the French or just scare them. In any case, a relief party of Wyandot, Ottawa, Potawatomi and Mississauga (Ojibwe) arrived and fell upon the Fox from behind. In the slaughter which followed, more than 1,000 Fox, Kickapoo and Mascouten were killed. Only 100 of the Fox escaped to find refuge with the Iroquois (English traders called them Squawkies). Otherwise, only a few Fox returned to Wisconsin with the Kickapoo and Mascouten. They joined the Fox who had remained behind and made the French and their allies pay dearly for the massacre at Detroit.

Sauk and Fox History

1713 Peace at Utrecht
1715 Fox Naval attack Lake Superior Ojibwe
1730 Fox defeated by French Fox join Sauk Tribe after defeat
1745 Millacs Ojibwe defeat Santee Dakota

The expansion of the Ojibwe into Wisconsin and Minnesota brought them into contact with the Eastern, or Santee Dakota (commonly known as the Sioux). During the 1730s, the Ojibwe and Dakota began to fight over the region around the western point of Lake Superior and the headwaters of the Mississippi River in Minnesota. A series of wars lasted until the 1850s. The Ojibwe were generally successful, and managed to push the Dakota farther west into Minnesota and North and South Dakota.

Milwaukee Public Museum (MPM): Ojibwe Culture

1754 French-Indian War 1754-1763 War between French and English for Lake Erie and Ohio valley
1756 Seven Years War 1756-1763
1760 French colonists surrender to British
1760 Cut Foot Sioux Leech Lake 1760? Ojibwe defeat Dakota. Dakota prisoners foot is cut by Ojibwe and told to walk home.
1763 Pontiac’s War

Pontiac attacks and destroys every British fort west of Niagara except Pitt and Detroit

MPM: Great Lakes History

1776 American Revolution 1776-1783
1776 Nation to Nation 1776-1871 Treaty Years
1780 Settlers push over Appalachian Mountains Brits can no longer ward off land grabbers but continue to control great lakes for 30 years
1780 Battle at St Croix Falls 1780? Lead by Waabijig, Ojibwe defeat Dakota and Fox at St. Croix Falls in a decisive battle
1787 Northwest Ordinance Indian land and property will not be taken without consent
1790 Indian Trade and Intercourse Act Any transfer of Indian land must be approved by congress
1791 Little Turtle at Fort Jefferson Little Turtle leads and Indian force of Miami’s, Shawnees and Delaware’s, defeating Gen. Arthur St. Clair’s army of over two thousand near Greenville, Ohio
1794 Establishment of British Northwest Company trading post at Sandy Lake.
1794 Jay Treaty
1795 Treaty of San Lorenzo
1803 Louisiana Purchase French sold US title to land between Mississippi and Rockies, which was not theirs to sell, helps fund Napoleons war
1804 Lewis and Clark expedition to Pacific Up Mississippi and west, mapping, surveying potential resources for US
1808 Tecumseh’s messengers visit Ojibwe
1811 Battle of Tippecanoe William Henry Harris destroys Tecumseh’s village at Wabash River, IN, while Tecumseh gone
1812 War of 1812 (1812-1814) America declares war on British Empire. Brits and French are no longer threats as Anishinaabe allies against US. More power loss for Anishinaabe
1815 US signs treaties with Indians in Ohio Valley starting Indian removals west 1815-1825
1824 BIA created in War Department
1825 Treaty of Prairie du Chien (WI) Establish boarder between Dakota and Ojibwe in the territory of Michigan (Minnesota) on August 19, 1825.
1826 American Fur Company post built at Sandy Lake.
1826 Treaty with the Chippewa concluded at the Fond du Lac of Lake Superior on August 5, 1826.
1827 Ojibwe Menominee boarder drawn
1830 Indian Removal Act President Jackson Removal Bill passed
1831 Cherokee Nation v. Georgia Tribes not foreign states but domestic dependent nations
1832 Black Hawk War Chief Black Hawk, Sauk and Fox, refuses to attend land session treaties in which rogue chiefs sign. On return from hunting camp finds American squatters with false deeds to his peoples land. After futile requests for justice to the U.S. Government, Black Hawk goes to war with U.S. in a series of battles. Under a flag of truce, many of Black Hawks people are massacred.
1832 Worcester v. Georgia
1837 Treaty with the Chippewa at St. Peters (the confluence of the St. Peters and Mississippi rivers) in the territory of Wisconsin on July 29, 1837.
1838 Trail of Death Indiana Potawatomis removed west to Kansas, many die forced march
1838 Trail of Tears Cherokee forced march west of Mississippi. 25% die enroute conservative estimates
1842 Treaty with the Chippewa at LaPointe Treaty with the Chippewa at LaPointe of Lake Superior in the territory of Wisconsin on October 4, 1842.
1847 Treaty with the Chippewa of the Mississippi and Lake Superior made and concluded at the Fond du Lac of Lake Superior on August 2, 1847.
1850 Sandy Lake Annuity Fiasco

Late arrival of annuities cause death of 150 Chippewa people from dysentery and measles at Sandy Lake. Another 230-250 die en route home

Wikipedia: Sandy Lake Band of Mississippi Chippewa

1854 Treaty with the Chippewa at LaPointe
1855 Treaty with the Chippewa in Washington, D.C.
1860 Sioux woman dreams of drum Sioux woman dreams of drum, around 1860, when Calvary overrun her village. They also present the Drum to the Ojibwe.
1862 US-Dakota Conflict
1864 Treaty with the Chippewa, Mississippi, and Pillager and Lake Winnibigoshish Bands Made and concluded at the City of Washington, D.C. On May 7, 1864 (Treaty is similar to the treaty of 1863, only addition was the tribe residing on the Sandy Lake Reservation shall not be removed).
1867 Treaty with the Chippewa of the Mississippi  Made and concluded at Washington D.C. on March 19, 1867.
1871 Assimilation and Vortex of Historic Trauma 1871-1928
1871 End of treaty making
1871 Indian Appropriation Act
1876 Little Big Horn
1879 Carlisle Indian School
1885 Major Crimes Act
1886 Northwest Indian Commission came to meet with the Sandy Lake Ojibwe.
1887 Dawes Allotment Act

An act to cut the lands on Indian Reservations, to extend protection of laws of the US and territories over Indians.

Dawes Act

1889 Unassigned lands in Indian Territory opened by white settlers known as “boomers.” The Unassigned Lands of Oklahoma Territory
1889 Nelson Act Wikipedia: Nelson Act of 1889
1890 Sitting Bull assassinated

Lakota chief and Holy man

Chief Sitting Bull

1890 Wounded Knee massacre in South Dakota

150 killed and 50 wounded in Wounded Knee Creek December 29th.

Wikipedia: Wounded Knee Massacre

1890 Oklahoma Territory organized out of western half of Indian Territory
1890 Indian population in US reaches all-time low of less than 250,000.
1890 Wounded Knee Massacre
1891 Morris Act
1893 White Settlement Cherokee Outlet opened for white settlement
1898 Curtis Act Curtis Act created to extend allotment to the tribes of Oklahoma
1898 U.S. Annexes Hawaii

U.S. Government takes control of Hawaiian Islands

Annexation of Hawaii 1898 

1898 Battle of Sugar Point
1902 Morris Act
1903 Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock Supreme Court rules that Congress has power to abrogate treaties with Indian tribes
1904 Steenerson Act Where Does Indian Policy Really Come From?
1904 Clapp Rider Authorizes the sale of timber resources by “Competent Indians”
1906 Burke Act Burke Act amends Dawes Act, defines and allows ‘competent’ (1/8 white) Indians to sell allotments
1906 Alaska Allotment Act An Act authorizing the Secretary of the Interior to allot homesteads to the Natives of Alaska.
1907 Oklahoma becomes State

Combines Indian and Oklahoma territories, tribal governments are dissolved

Wikipedia: Oklahoma

1911 Graham Commission
1913 White Earth Roll Commission U of M Anthropologists hired to see who was a full blood on White Earth by measuring physical traits such as skull, nose and skin scratch test. Majority of full bloods now listed as mixed and more land and timber is lost.
1915 Sandy Lake Indian Reservation established  Sandy Lake
1918 General Council of the Red Lake Tribe created
1924 Indian Citizens Act
1928 Meriam Report Officially titled “The Problem of Indian Administration”, published in 1928 by a team of social scientists, it recounted the conditions for Indian peoples on reservations. 
1928 Indian Re-organization 1928-1953
1934 Johnson O’Mally Act

The Johnson-O’Malley Act was passed, allowing states, other political subdivisions, and private entities to provide for the health, education and welfare of Indians through contracts and grants. The Indian Reorganization Act, passed as part of President

A Chronological History of IHS

1934 Indian Reorganization Act Ends allotment, provides for self-government, eliminates traditional government, legislation passed in 1934 in the United States in an attempt to secure new rights for Native Americans on reservations
1937 MCT Constitution Ratified in 1934, this constitution brought together six of the seven Chippewa (Anishinaabe) tribes in Minnesota, joined them together as the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe
1942 St. Croix Reservation established Established from privately owned Indian land
1944 National Congress of Indians
1946 Indian Claims Commission established
1952 Indian Relocation Program
1953 P.L. . 280 State Civil and Criminal jurisdiction

Public law 280 termination of federal trusteeship over Indian lands. AL, CA, NE, MN, OR and WI have criminal and civil jurisdiction over reservations

Public Law 280

1953 House Concurrent Resolution 108 – Termination Act
1953 Termination 1953-1968
1956 relocation act

Act to encourage relocation to urban centers

The American Indian Movement, Philosophy of Land & Land Rights

Relocation Act of 1954

1961 Indian conference and council

American Indian Chicago conference

American Indian Education


National Indian Youth Council Founded

National Indian Youth Council

1968 AIM Founded

American Indian movement founded

A Brief History of the American Indian Movement


His AIM is True

1968 American Indian Movement AIM was established to stop police brutality in the Minneapolis metro area.
1968 Indian Civil Rights Act

Reservation Indians have many same rights as US constitution but only enforced by US if incarcerated by tribe.

Complete Text of Indian Civil Rights Act

1968 Indian Bill of Rights

1968 Self-Determination and 1968-1982
1969 AIM at Alcatraz

 Indian activists take over Alcatraz

The Occupation

Celebrating the 35th Anniversary of the Occupation

1969 National Indian Education Association

Founded in Minnesota to give American Indians and Alaska Natives a national voice in Education

History of NIEA

1969 Kennedy Report Indian Education: A national tragedy, a national challenge
1970 LaDonna Harris embodies her Comanche heritage

Since 1970, she has served as the president of Americans for Indian Opportunity (AIO).

LaDonna Harris Bio

National Women’s History Project

1970 BIA Take Over AIM took over BIA offices in D.C. ending the trail of broken treaties
1971 AIM removed from Alcatraz

Federal officials removed them in 1971

The Native American Movement

1972 Office of Indian Education Created

Created in 1972, and it currently administers the Indian Education Program of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001

Office of Indian Education

1972 Drinking water politics

Fort McDowell Indians became aware of the proposal in 1972

History of the Fort McDowell Indian Community

1972 AIM Trail of Broken Treaties  March on BIA D.C. protesting broken federal promises
1972 Gurnoe Decision
1973 72 day standoff at Wounded Knee Members of the American Indian Movement, together with a number of local and traditional Native Americans, began their seventy-two day stand off at Wounded Knee.
1973 AIM at Wounded Knee Wikipedia: Wounded Knee Incident
1975 Indian Self-Determination Act and Education Assistance Act Tribal control over reservation programs and school build schools
1978 Indian Child Welfare Act

Established to protect the well-being of our children, promote the stability and security of Indian tribes and families by giving tribal courts jurisdiction over children living on reservations.

Indian Child Welfare Act

1978 Indian Freedom of Religion Act

To protect and preserve for American Indians their inherent right of freedom to believe, express and exercise the traditional religions

Protection and Preservation of Traditional Religions

1978 Longest Walk AIM walk from Alcatraz to Washington D.C. to protest government ill treatment, ends with 30,000 ascending on Capital = equals million man march in scale
1981 President Reagan initiates cutbacks on Indian funding.

President cuts funds by as much as 40%.

The Century in Review

1982 Indian Mineral Development Act

Congress passed this act to encourage tribes to become economically self-sufficient.

Indian Mineral Development Act of 1982

1982 Self-Governance and Self-Oppression 1982-Present
1984 Committee of Indian Affairs

Committee gains jurisdiction to study unique problems of American Indians, native Hawaiians, Alaska natives

United States Senate Committee of Indian Affairs

1985 Wilma Mankiller becomes principal chief of the Cherokee Nation.

First women to be elected chief of a major Indian tribe.

About Wilma Mankiller

1986 School Lawsuit Heart of the Earth, and Red school house successfully sue dept. of education
1987 Camp Justice Ojibwe sit-in at MCT offices demanding constitution reform
1988 Indian Gaming Regulatory Act

Tribes become engaged in licensed gaming.

Indian Gaming Regulatory Act

1988 Indian Self-Governance Act
1989 Senate Selects Committee on Indian Affairs Reports recommends a new era of voluntary agreements.
1990 Native American Grave Protection and Reparation Act

New law, 101-601, to protect Indian burial grounds

US Cultural Protection Legislation

1990 Native American Language Act

Federal Policy statement recognizing Native American Language

Wikipedia: Native American Language Act of 1990

1990 NAGPRA act

President George Bush Signed the “Native American Graves Protection Act

Wikipedia: Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act

1990 Indian Law Enforcement Act
1991 Indian Nations at Risk Task Force
1995 President rescues Office of Indian Education
2002 No Child Left Behind
2005 New Charter School opens in Naytahwaush, on the White Earth reservation

Community members believe it will better from a cultural perspective

Charter School to Open on White Earth Reservation

2011 Historic Trauma
2012 Constitution Reform Stops Self-oppression Referendum by petition researches and reestablishes traditional governance including contemporary needs for tomorrow.
2013 Poverty Culture Reversed Leadership, language and culture re-establish self-identity
2014 Decolonization
2014 Ojibwe Nation Unites Canadian and US Ojibwe unite as one nation. Ojibwe vote at any reserve they live at regardless of enrollment place